Glossary and Terms for English/Spanish


English-Spanish Special Education Terms
Special Educatio
n Commonly Used Terms for English/Spanish Interpreters

Table of Contents includes Acronyms/Siglas and Terms and Definitions
Acronyms/Siglas and Terms and Definitions (alphabetical in English followed by Spanish definition)



GLOSSARY

A
  Academic Achievement Record (AAR)
  The official and permanent record of the student’s academic performance in high school; also known as a transcript.
  Academic Excellence Indicator System (AEIS)
  The annual report on the performance of students in each school and district in Texas. This report has multiple indicators including graduation and attendance rates disaggregated by ethnicity, special education, economically disadvantaged, limited English proficient, at-risk, and bilingual/English as a second language. Additionally, the report has information on school and district staff and programs.  The Academic Excellence Indicator System was available from 2003-2004 through 2011-2012.  For performance reports beginning 2012-2013, see the Texas Academic Performance Report.
  Accelerated Reading Instruction
  Intensified, research-based reading instruction that addresses the student’s reading needs as determined by results of K-2 reading instruments.
  Access to the General Curriculum (AGC)
  Under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, children with disabilities must have the opportunity to learn and be tested on the same curriculum as that provided to students without disabilities.  By using a range of instructional strategies based on the varied strengths and needs of students, teachers ensure that students work towards grade level content standards.  AGC is the goal of all Texas schools.
  Accommodations
  Changes to materials or procedures that enable students with disabilities or English language learners to participate meaningfully in learning and testing. It is important to keep in mind that while some accommodations may be appropriate for instructional use, they may not be appropriate or allowable on a statewide assessment.
  Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) Committee
  A committee composed of a child's parent, the child, when appropriate, and school personnel who are involved with the child. The ARD committee determines a child's eligibility to receive special education services and develops the individualized education program (IEP) of the child. The ARD committee is the IEP team defined in federal law.
  Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) Meeting
  A meeting to annually review a student’s special education program that includes an update of the student’s progress, a review of the current individualized education program (IEP), and development of a new IEP for the upcoming year.
  Adult Student
  Refers to a student with a disability who is at least 18 years old to whom rights have transferred under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and who is not under legal guardianship.
  Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  Gives civil rights protections to individuals with disabilities that are like those provided to individuals on the basis of race, sex, national origin, and religion. It guarantees equal opportunity for individuals with disabilities in employment, public accommodations, transportation, state and local government services, and telecommunications.
  Annual Goals
  Describes what a student with a disability can reasonably be expected to accomplish in the special education program within a twelve-month period. It is a skill and/or knowledge that can be measured and mastered based on given criteria. The academic annual goal is related to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills at the student’s enrolled grade level.
  Arts
  Includes band, choir, art, theatre, dance and other courses accepted by the State Board of Education for graduation credit in fine arts.
  Assessment
  The ongoing evaluation used by appropriately qualified personnel throughout the period of a child’s eligibility to identify the child’s unique needs and strengths, the family’s concerns, priorities, and resources and the supports and services necessary to enhance developmental needs of the child, and the nature and extent of intervention services needed by the child and the family in order to address the determinations.
  Assistive Technology Device (ATD)
  Any item, piece of equipment, or product, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities. Some children need ATDs to enable them to participate in activities with children who do not have disabilities.
  Assistive Technology Service
  Any service that directly assists the child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device, and includes the evaluation of the needs of the child.
  At-Risk
  At-risk students include the following:  students who were not advanced from one grade level to the next for one or more school years; students in grades 7–12 who did not maintain an average equivalent to 70 on a scale of 100 in two or more subjects in the foundation curriculum during a semester in the preceding or current school year or are not maintaining such an average in two or more subjects in the foundation curriculum in the current semester; students who did not perform satisfactorily on an assessment instrument administered to the student and have not in the previous or current school year subsequently performed on that instrument or another appropriate instrument at a level equal to at least 110 percent of the level of satisfactory performance on that instrument; students in prekindergarten, kindergarten, or grade 1, 2, or 3 who did not perform satisfactorily on a readiness test or assessment instrument administered during the current school year; limited English proficient students; recovered dropouts; pre- and post-adjudicated students; homeless students; pregnant or parenting students; and/or students who previously resided or currently reside in a residential placement facility in the district.
  Attendance
  Includes but is not limited to attendance in person, or by paper correspondence, videoconference, satellite, Internet, or other electronic information and telecommunications technologies for students who are physically present in the classroom and the period during which a person is working under a work-study program.
  Audiologist
  State-licensed health care professionals who use technology, creative problem solving, and social skills to identify and treat hearing, balance, tinnitus, and other auditory disorders. 
  Auditory Impairment (AI)
  Deafness or hearing impairment is considered an auditory impairment.  Deafness is a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification that adversely affects the child’s educational performance.  A hearing impairment is an impairment, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects the child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of deafness.
  Autism (AU)
  The developmental disability that significantly affects verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, and adversely affects a child’ s educational performance.
  Average Daily Attendance (ADA)
  The number of students attending school on an average day.
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  Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
  A written plan developed as part of the individualized education program to address behavioral concerns affecting the student’s educational progress. It is based on a functional behavioral assessment of the problem behaviors, identifies events that predict these behaviors, includes positive interventions to change behaviors, and includes methods of evaluation.
  Biometric Record
  When used in the definition of personally identifiable information, a record of one or more measurable biological or behavioral characteristics that can be used for automated recognition of an individual. Examples include fingerprints, retina and iris patterns, voiceprints, DNA sequence, facial characteristics, and handwriting.
  Braille
  A form of media for obtaining literacy for people who use their tactile sense as the primary means of gathering information.
  Bullying
  Engaging in written or verbal expression or physical conduct that occurs on school property, at a school-sponsored or school-related activity, or in a vehicle operated by the district that will have the effect of physically harming a student, damaging a student's property, or placing a student in reasonable fear of harm to the student's person or of damage to the student's property or is sufficiently severe, persistent, or pervasive enough that the action or threat creates an intimidating, threatening, or abusive educational environment for a student.
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  Career and Technical Education (CTE)
  The programs dedicated to preparing young people to manage the dual roles of family member and wage earner. CTE programs enable students to gain entry-level employment in a high-skill, high-wage job and/or to continue their education.
  Career and Technical Education for the Disabled (CTED)
  For a student to be enrolled in a CTED course, an admission, review, and dismissal committee must determine that services available through a regular career and technical education course are insufficient for the student to make satisfactory progress and that the specialized services the student needs can only be provided in the specialized, self-contained CTED classroom.
  Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialist (COMS)
  A COMS is required to conduct an orientation and mobility evaluation for initial eligibility of a student under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act category of visual impairment and to be a member of the multidisciplinary team in assisting with reevaluations.  A COMS provides services that enable students who are visually impaired to attain systematic orientation to and safe movement within the home, school and community environments, and in addition support development of social, sensory, daily living, and recreation/leisure skills.  
  Charter School
  Independent public schools designed and operated by educators, parents, community leaders, educational entrepreneurs, and others. They are sponsored by designated local or state educational organizations which monitor their quality and effectiveness but allow them to operate outside of the traditional system of public schools.
  Child Find
  Refers to state-developed policies and procedures which ensure that all children with disabilities residing in Texas, regardless of the severity of their disabilities, who are in need of special education and related services are identified, located, and evaluated.
  Child with a Disability
  A child with an intellectual disability, hearing impairments including deafness, speech or language impairments, visual impairments including blindness, serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments, autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning disabilities who needs special education and related services.  The term is used appropriately except when referring to services and activities for students aged 18 and older.
  Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
  The codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the federal government. It is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to federal regulation. Each volume of the CFR is updated once each calendar year and issued on a quarterly basis.
  Commensurate School Day
  When the child with a disability has the same instructional day as that provided to students without disabilities on the student's home campus.
  Commissioner
  The chief executive official or chief state school officer of the Texas Education Agency is known as the commissioner of education.
  Communication Disorder
  An impairment in the ability to receive, send, process and comprehend concepts or verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbol systems. It includes stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, and voice impairment. 
  Community Resource Coordination Group (CRCG)
  An interagency group comprised of public and private child-service providers who meet on a regular basis to review service needs and provide limited case management services for students who have multiple personal and family needs. These needs which adversely affect their ability to benefit from the educational program are best met through interagency coordination.
  Compensatory Education
  Defined in law as programs and/or services designed to supplement the regular education program for students identified as at risk of dropping out of school. The purpose is to increase academic achievement and reduce the dropout rate of these students.
  Complaint
  Written action taken to notify the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and a school district that special education regulations are not being followed by the school district.  A complaint must include the name and address of student, the violation that occurred, and offer a possible resolution to the complaint.  It must be sent to both TEA and the school district superintendent.
  Consent
  Written informed parental consent is required before the local educational agency (LEA) evaluates a child for special education services for the first time, provides special education services for the first time, and reevaluates the child to determine the continued eligibility for special education services. Informed parental consent need not be obtained prior to reevaluation if the LEA can demonstrate it has taken reasonable measures to obtain such consent and the child's parent has failed to respond. Written consent is also needed before the LEA can release personally identifiable information from a child's education records, with certain exceptions as provided in federal law including when releasing to other school officials with a legitimate educational interest and to another LEA because the child intends to or has enrolled in the LEA. Consent is voluntary and may be withdrawn at any time.
  Controlled Substance 
  A drug which has been declared by federal or state law to be illegal for sale or use, but may be dispensed under a physician’s prescription.
  Core Academic Subjects
  English, reading/language arts, mathematics, science, foreign languages, civics/government, economics, arts, history, and geography.
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  Dangerous Weapon
  A weapon, device, instrument, material, or substance, animate or inanimate, that is used for, or is readily capable of, causing death or serious bodily injury, but does not include a pocket knife with a blade of less than 2 1/2 inches in length.
  Deaf-Blind
  The combination of hearing and visual impairments, which cause such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that the student cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or solely for children with blindness. 
  Diagnostician
  A qualified examiner who primarily serves as a member of a multidisciplinary team and works closely with parents, teachers, and other school personnel in using a wide variety of instruments to assess and diagnose learning problems and evaluate academic skills of students.
  Differentiated Instruction
  A process used to recognize the varying background knowledge, readiness, language, learning preferences, and interests of a student. The intent of differentiated instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success.
  Director and Librarian
  The executive and administrative officer of the Texas State Library and Archives Commission, respectively.
  Directory Information
  Information contained in the education record of a student that would not generally be considered harmful or an invasion of privacy if disclosed.
  Disciplinary Action
  The investigation, adjudication, or imposition of sanctions by an educational agency or institution with respect to an infraction or violation of the internal rules of conduct applicable to students of the agency or institution.
  Disciplinary Alternative Education Program (DAEP)
  Each school district shall provide a DAEP that: is provided in a setting other than a student's regular classroom; is located on or off of a regular school campus; provides for the students who are assigned to the DAEP to be separated from students who are not assigned to the program; focuses on English language arts, mathematics, science, history, and self-discipline; provides for students' educational and behavioral needs; and provides supervision and counseling.
  Disclosure
  To permit access to or the release, transfer, or other communication of personally identifiable information contained in education records by any means including oral, written, or electronic means to any party except the party identified as the party that provided or created the record.
  Distinguished Level of Achievement
  A high level of academic achievement earned by going beyond the Foundation High School Program. It requires a total of 26 course credits including Algebra II, a fourth science credit, and an endorsement. 
  Districtwide Assessment
  The assessments required for all children in a grade and may include benchmark testing, achievement testing, reading inventories, or other assessments required by the district.
  Drug
  Includes controlled substances, the illegal use of alcohol and tobacco, and the harmful, abusive, or addictive use of substances including inhalants and anabolic steroids.
  Dual Enrollment
  When the parent of the child with a disability enrolls the child in both a public and a private school.
  Due Process
  A formal legal process that is similar to a civil court hearing used to solve disagreements concerning the identification, evaluation, educational placement or the provision of a free appropriate public education to a child with a disability. An impartial hearing officer, similar to a judge, provided by the Texas Education Agency conducts the hearing, hears evidence from all parties, and makes a legally binding decision.
  Dyslexia
  A brain-based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a person’s ability to read. These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics are difficulty with phonological processing, spelling, and/or rapid visual/verbal responding.
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  Early Childhood Intervention (ECI)
  Programs and services which are provided to infants and toddlers with developmental delays from birth through age two administered under Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
  Early Intervening Services (EIS)
  Support services for students not identified with a disability but who need additional academic and behavioral support to succeed in the general education classroom. 
  Education Records
  Records that are directly related to a student and maintained by an educational agency or institution or by a party acting for the agency or institution.
  Education Service Center (ESC)
  Provides training, technical assistance, administrative support, and an array of other services as determined by the legislature, the commissioner of education, and the needs of local school districts and charter schools. Most often associated with small and medium-sized districts, the ESCs have a long history of providing assistance to all districts, including metropolitan and large suburban districts.
  Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
  The 1965 law that emphasized equal educational access and high accountability standards with state-administered federal funds.  In 2002, ESEA was reauthorized as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).  In December 2015, ESEA was reauthorized as the Every Student Succeeds Act, replacing NCLB.
  Eligibility
  The determination that a student is a “child with a disability” as defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and as a result of the disability, the child needs special education services to benefit from education.
  Emergency
  A situation in which a student's behavior poses a threat of imminent, serious physical harm to the student or others or imminent, serious property destruction.
  Emotional Disturbance (ED)
  A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers; inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; and/or a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
  Employability Skills 
  Skills that are directly related to the preparation of young adults for employment including general skills necessary to obtain or retain employment.
  End of Course (EOC)
  The assessments that measure the student's academic performance in core high school courses and become part of the graduation requirements. The EOC assessments for lower-level courses must include questions to determine readiness for advanced coursework. The assessments for higher-level courses must include a series of special purpose questions to measure college readiness and the need for developmental coursework in higher education.
  Endorsement
  A related series of courses that are grouped together by interest or skill set that provide high school students with in-depth knowledge of a subject area. Endorsements are one part of the Foundation Graduation Program and are available in five areas: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics; Business and Industry; Public Service; Arts and Humanities; and Multi-Disciplinary Studies.  
  English as a Second Language (ESL)
  A program of techniques, methodology and special curriculum designed to teach English language learner students English language skills, which may include listening, speaking, reading, writing, study skills, content vocabulary, and cultural orientation. ESL instruction is usually in English with little use of native language.
  English Language Learner (ELL)
  A child whose native language is a language other than English or who comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant and who has difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language.
  Equal Access
  The opportunity for a qualified person with a disability to participate in or benefit from educational aid, benefits, or services that is equal to what is available to a nondisabled person.
  Equipment
  Includes machinery, utilities, built-in equipment, and any necessary enclosures or structures to house such machinery, utilities, or equipment, and all other items necessary for the functioning of a particular facility as a facility for the provision of educational services including items such as instructional equipment, necessary furniture, printed, published and audiovisual instructional materials, telecommunications, sensory, and other technological aids and devices, books, periodicals, documents, and other related materials.
  Evaluation
  The collection of information to determine whether a child is a child with a disability, and to determine the educational needs of the child. The team who collects or reviews evaluation data, referred to as the multidisciplinary team, must use a variety of assessment tools and strategies to gather relevant functional, developmental, and academic information, including information provided by the parent. An evaluation may include giving individual tests, observing the student, looking at educational records, and talking with the student, teachers and parents.
  Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
  A law signed on December 10, 2015, amending and reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.  Four key points of the ESSA are college- and career-ready standards, focused support and attention for the lowest-performing five percent of schools, expanding preschool opportunity, and support for local innovation and investing in what works.
  Excess Costs
  Costs that are in excess of the average annual per student expenditure in the local educational agency during the preceding school year for the elementary or secondary school child, as may be appropriate.
  Extended School Year Services (ESY)
  An individualized educational program for children with disabilities that is provided beyond the regular school year. The need for ESY services must be determined on an individual basis by the child's admission, review, and dismissal committee from formal and/or informal evaluations provided by the local educational agency or the parents. A child is eligible for ESY services when the child has exhibited or reasonably may be expected to exhibit severe or substantial regression in one or more critical skill areas that cannot be recouped within a reasonable period of time.
  Extent Practicable
  Services and supports should be based on peer-reviewed research to the extent that it is possible given the availability of peer-reviewed research.
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  Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
  A federal law (20 U.S.C. § 1232g; 34 CFR Part 99) that protects the privacy of student education records. The law applies to all schools that receive federal funds. FERPA gives parents certain rights with respect to their children's education records. These rights transfer to the student reaching the age of 18 or when the student attends a school beyond the high school level.
  Foster Parent
  A person who provides foster care services in the foster home. Foster care means 24-hour substitute care for children placed away from their parents or guardians and for whom the state agency has placement and care responsibility. This includes but is not limited to placement in foster family homes, foster homes of relatives, group homes, emergency shelters, residential facilities, childcare institutions, and pre-adoptive homes.
  Foundation High School Program
  The basic 22-credit graduation program for Texas public school students.
  Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
  Special education and related services that have been provided at public expense under public supervision and direction and without charge, meets the standards of the Texas Education Agency, includes an appropriate preschool, elementary school, or secondary school education in the state involved, and are provided in conforming with the individualized education program.
  Frequency
  How often the child with a disability receives a service, as in the number of times per day or week. If the service is less than daily then the conditions for the provision of services must be clearly specified within the admission, review, and dismissal documents using a weekly reference; e.g., one hour per week, 30 minutes every two weeks. Frequency for Early Childhood Intervention is the number of days or sessions that a service will be provided within a specific period of time.
  Full and Individual Evaluation (FIE)
  A comprehensive evaluation that consists of data gathered from multiple sources for each student being considered for special education and related services. It is a part of the district's overall general education referral or screening system. Prior to referral, students experiencing difficulty in the general classroom are to be considered for all support services available to all students, such as tutorial, remedial, compensatory, response to scientific, research-based intervention, and other academic or behavior support services.
  Full-Time Equivalent (FTE)
  Thirty hours of contact a week between a special education student and special education program personnel.
  Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)
  A systematic process for describing problem behavior and identifying the environmental factors and surrounding events associated with problem behavior. The team that works closely with the child exhibiting problem behavior observes the behavior and identifies and defines its problematic characteristics, identifies which actions or events precede and follow the behavior, and determines how often the behavior occurs.
  Functionally Blind
  The child with a visual impairment is functionally blind if, based on the functional vision evaluation and the learning media assessment, the child will use tactual media which includes braille as a primary tool for learning to be able to communicate in both reading and writing at the same level of proficiency as other children of comparable ability.
  Futures Planning
  Planning for the future regardless of the age of the child, providing an outline of the necessary requirements to reach goals that will enable the child to function in the present and upcoming school settings, as well as post-secondary settings.
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  Gifted and Talented (GT)
  Students who exhibit evidence of high achievement capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who need services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop those capabilities.
  Graduation
  The successful completion of all curriculum requirements and satisfactory performance on the secondary exit-level assessment instrument, or it may be the successful completion of an individualized education program (IEP) and the criteria for graduating pursuant to an IEP. A child with a disability may graduate by completing the same program required of non-disabled children or by completing the requirements the IEP and meeting the criteria set forth by the commissioner in 19 T.A.C. §89.1070.
  Guardian
  A person who has been appointed to be the legal caretaker of a child through formal proceedings in accordance with law or stands in the place of a parent to a child whether by accepting responsibility for the child’s welfare or by a court order.
  Guardianship
  A legal process that removes rights and privileges from a person aged 18 and older who is considered incapacitated under state law. The process involves the court system and an attorney. Unless parents have gained guardianship of their child with a disability or made other legal arrangements, all rights including signing and agreeing to the individualized education program will be transferred to the student upon turning 18.
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  Hard of Hearing
  See Auditory Impairment
  Hearing Officer
  An impartial person appointed by the Texas Education Agency in charge of a due process hearing. The hearing officer cannot be an employee of any agency involved in the education or care of the child who is the subject of the hearing and cannot have any personal or professional interest that would conflict with his or her objectivity in the hearing. The hearing officer must possess the necessary knowledge and skill necessary to serve as a hearing officer. The hearing officer issues a written decision based upon the evidence and witnesses presented at the hearing.
  High, Objective Uniform State Standard of Evaluation (HOUSE)
  The method by which eligible, experienced special education teachers may demonstrate competency in each core academic subject area they teach on the basis of a high objective uniform state standard of evaluation. This standard must be one that, among other requirements provides objective coherent information about the teacher’s attainment of core content knowledge in the academic subjects in which a teacher teaches.
  Highly Qualified Teacher (HQ)
  Teachers who teach core subject academic areas to meet specific competency and educational requirements and who meet these requirements are considered highly qualified. Teachers are required to be highly qualified if they are the teacher of record providing direct instruction to students in any core academic subject area. Highly qualified teachers must hold at least a bachelor’s degree, be fully certified to teach in Texas, and demonstrate competency in their core academic subject area.
  Home School
  In Texas, children may be home-schooled in lieu of attending traditional public school. Under the Texas Education Code, home schools must be run in a bona fide manner with a written curriculum that covers the basics of math, reading, spelling, grammar, and good citizenship. The Texas Education Agency does not regulate, index, monitor, approve, or register the programs available to parents who choose to home school, nor does the state of Texas award diplomas to students that are home schooled.
  Homeless
  An individual who lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence and who has a primary nighttime residence that is a supervised public or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations, an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized, or a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings.
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  IEP Facilitation
  A method of alternative dispute resolution that involves the use of a trained facilitator to assist an admission, review, and dismissal committee in developing an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for a student with a disability.
  Immigrant Student
  Individuals, aged 3 through 21, who were not born in any state, and have not been attending one or more schools in any one or more states for more than three full academic years.
  Inclusion
  The process of integrating children with disabilities into the academic and social activities of regular schools and general education classrooms.
  Independent Educational Evaluation (IEE)
  An evaluation conducted by a qualified examiner who is not employed by the local educational agency (LEA) responsible for the education of the child being evaluated. A parent has a right to request an IEE at public expense when the parent disagrees with an evaluation conducted or obtained by the LEA.

The IEE must meet the same criteria the LEA uses for its own evaluations. The LEA does not have to pay for the IEE if it can show at a due process hearing that the LEA's evaluation is appropriate or if it can show that the IEE does not meet the LEA's criteria. The parent always has the right to get an IEE at the parent's expense. Regardless of who pays for it, the admission, review, and dismissal committee must consider any IEE that meets its criteria.
  Individualized Education Program (IEP)
  A written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed and revised by the admission, review, and dismissal committee, of which parents are active members. The IEP includes the student's present levels of academic achievement and functional performance, participation in state and district-wide assessments, transition services, annual goals, special factors, special education, related services, supplementary aids and services, extended school year services, and least restrictive environment. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is now aligned with the important principles of No Child Left Behind in promoting accountability for results, enhancing the role of parents and improving student achievement through instructional approaches that are based on scientific research.
  Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP)
  A comprehensive, written plan developed by a multidisciplinary team, including the parents, that provides a description of the appropriate transition services for the infant or toddler.  For a child from birth through two years of age with a visual impairment and/or an auditory impairment, an IFSP meeting must be held in place of an admission, review, and dismissal committee meeting. 
  Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
  The federal law that provides assistance to states for the education of children with disabilities is the IDEA. This law gives every child with a disability the right to a public education at no cost to the family. Part C of the IDEA requires services to begin at birth and extends until the child turns three. Early Childhood Intervention programs deliver Part C services. Part B of the IDEA requires services for children from ages 3 through 21. Most children receiving Part B services are in public schools.
  Informed Consent
  When the parent has been fully informed of all information relevant to the activity for which consent is sought in his or her native language or through another mode of communication. The parent understands and agrees in writing to the carrying out of the activity for which consent is sought, and the consent describes that activity and lists any records that will be released and to whom. The parent understands that the granting of consent is voluntary on the part of the parent and may be revoked at any time. If a parent revokes consent, that revocation is not retroactive and it does not negate an action that has occurred after the consent was given and before the consent was revoked.
  Instructional Setting/Arrangement
  The educational placement for the child with a disability and the decision for determining the instructional arrangement/setting must be based on the child’s individualized education program. The admission, review, and dismissal committee determines the appropriate instructional setting/arrangement. The local educational agency must ensure that a continuum of alternative placements is available to meet the needs for special education and related services.
  Intellectual Disability (ID)
  A student with an ID is one who has been determined to have significantly sub-average intellectual functioning as measured by a standardized, individually administered test of cognitive ability in which the overall test score is at least two standard deviations below the mean when taking into consideration the standard error of measurement of the test and concurrently exhibits deficits in at least two of the following areas of adaptive behavior: communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills, use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work, leisure, health, and safety.
  Intensive Program of Instruction
  Instructional practices adapted to respond to the complex needs of students not meeting standard on state assessments in grades 3 through 12. Difficulties meeting state assessment standards in any academic subject area may or may not be related to the student’s area of disability.
  Interim Alternative Educational Setting (IAES)
  An appropriate setting determined by the child’s admission, review, and dismissal committee in which the child is placed for no more than 45 school days.  This setting enables the child to continue to receive educational services and participate in the general education curriculum, although in another setting, and to progress toward meeting the goals set out in the individualized education program.
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  Job coach
  A person who specializes in helping individuals with disabilities learn and accurately carry out job duties as well as provides one-on-one training tailored to meet the needs of the employee and to meet the employer's expectations.
  Juvenile Justice Alternative Education Program (JJAEP)
  This program was designed to provide an educational setting for students who are mandatorily expelled from school per the Texas Education Code or students discretionarily expelled according to the local school districts’ student codes of conduct.  A JJAEP is mandated to operate by statute in counties with a population of 125,000 or greater. Each program is governed and controlled by a locally negotiated memorandum of understanding between the local juvenile board and each school district within the county.  
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  Language Proficiency Assessment Committee (LPAC)
  All school districts that are required to provide bilingual education and/or English as a second language programs must establish and operate an LPAC. The LPAC is charged with reviewing all pertinent information on all identified limited English proficient students upon their initial enrollment and at the end of each school year. Districts are required to have on file policy and procedures for the selection, appointment, and training of members of the LPAC. The committee must adhere to the provisions, monitor student progress, determine appropriate instructional interventions, make assessment decisions on an individual student basis, function as a committee to make assessment decisions, and maintain appropriate documentation.
  Learning Media Assessment (LMA)
  An evaluation conducted by a teacher of the visually impaired  to determine the most appropriate literacy media, print or braille, or a combination, for the student with a visual impairment.
  Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
  To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who are not disabled.  Special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature or severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved satisfactorily.
  Licensed Specialist in School Psychology (LSSP)
  An individual who has completed a supervised school psychology internship of which 600 hours are in the school setting, is licensed or certified in school psychology by the state in which the individuals works, or in the absence of such state licensure or certification, possesses national certification by the National School Psychology Certification Board.
  Limited Alertness
  A heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment.
  Limited English Proficient (LEP)
  A student whose primary language is other than English and whose English language skills are such that the student has difficulty performing ordinary class work in English.
  Local Educational Agency (LEA)
  A public board of education or other public authority legally constituted within a State for either administrative control or direction of, or to perform a service function for, public elementary schools or secondary schools in a city, county, township, school district, or other political subdivision of a State, or for a combination of school districts or counties that is recognized in a State as an administrative agency for its public elementary schools or secondary schools. Public school districts, open enrollment charter schools, and regional education service centers are specific examples of LEAs.
  Local Government
  A county, including all district and precinct offices of a county, municipality, public school district, appraisal district, or any other special-purpose district or authority.
  Local Government Record
  Any document, paper, letter, book, map, photograph, sound or video recording, microfilm, magnetic tape, electronic medium, or other information recording medium regardless of physical form or characteristic and regardless of whether public access to it is open or restricted under the laws of the state, created or received by a local government or any of its officers or employees pursuant to law, including an ordinance, or in the transaction of public business.
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  Maintenance of Effort (MOE)
  A requirement to ensure the recipient of federal funds does not spend those funds in place of state and local dollars. MOE ensures grant recipients spend their state and local funds for the same activities that would be provided if federal dollars were not available. The underlying principle is that the local educational agency is responsible for maintaining effort in providing a free public education to all students from year to year.  MOE is required by many grant programs.